TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that the Scientific Revolution
in Europe, with its emphasis on observation, experimentation, investigation, and
speculation, represented a new approach to problem solving. This philosophy
became synonymous with modern thought throughout the world.

- What role did science and technology play in the changes that took place in
Europe from 1450 to 1770?

- To what extent was the Scientific Revolution a rejection of traditional authority?

- To what extent does this tension still exist?

- To what extent did Europeans apply this approach to traditional values and

Suggested Documents: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the
Heavenly Spheres; Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Dutchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems; René Descartes, Discourse on Method

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that during the Enlightenment, Europeans moved toward new assumptions regarding power, authority, governance, and law. These assumptions led to the new social and political systems during the Age of Revolution.

Suggested Documents: John Locke, Two Treatises of Government; Jean-Jacques
Rousseau, The Social Contract; Voltaire, Treatise on Toleration; René Descartes,
Discourse on Method; for writings of Catherine the Great see

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should focus on the impact of the Enlightenment
on American political thought and, in turn, the impact of the American Revolution on subsequent revolutions. Students should not engage in an indepth analysis of the battles and phases of the American Revolution. The American, French, and Latin
American revolutions were turning points in global history. Students should be able
to identify the forces that brought about these changes and their long-term effects.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Each of these revolutions, both political and economic, provides
students with multiple opportunities for examination of issues from multiple

- To what extent was the Scientific Revolution related to the Enlightenment?

- In what ways did the French Revolution overturn the balance of power that had
existed in Europe?

- To what extent are the stages of the American, French, and Latin American
revolutions similar? dissimilar?

Suggested Documents: Thomas Paine, Common Sense; the Declaration of Independence; the Bill of Rights; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of
Citizens; Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France; Simon Bolivar,
Message to the Congress of Angostura http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1819bolivar.html

- What impact did the Congress of Vienna and conservative reaction across
Europe have on the establishment of democratic states in Europe?

- What reactions against revolutionary ideas occurred in Europe, Russia, and
Latin America?

- What forces led to the 19th-century failure of democracy in Latin America and

- What role did the individual citizen play in these revolutions?

Suggested Documents: Political maps of these revolutions reflecting adjustments
and boundary changes, before and after the Congress of Vienna

- What were the perspectives of various social classes on the revolutions in Latin

- What role did peasants play in the Mexican Revolution?

- How successful was this revolution?

  1. What role did nationalism play in this revolution?


TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should be able to define nationalism and analyze
the impact of nationalism as a unifying and divisive force in Europe and other
areas of the world. They should also be able to examine nationalism across time
and place.

- What role did nationalism play in Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa,
and Latin America?

- What role does nationalism play today in these regions?

Suggested Documents: Giuseppe Mazzini, Young Italy; Carl Schurz,
Revolution Spreads to the German States.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that the Agrarian and
Industrial revolutions, like the Neolithic Revolution, led to radical change.
Students should realize that the process of industrialization is still occurring in
developing nations.

-What role did the Industrial Revolution play in the changing roles of men and

- What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on the expansion of suffrage throughout the late-19th and early-20th centuries?

- To what extent did the Industrial Revolution lead to greater urbanization
throughout the world?

- What geographic factors explain why industrialization began in Great Britain?

- How did the European arts respond to the Industrial Revolution?

- In what ways did social class impact on the ways various groups looked at the
Industrial Revolution?

- What impact did industrialization have on the environment?

- In what ways did the abuses of the Industrial Revolution lead to such competing
ideologies as liberalism, conservatism, socialism, and communism?

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should be able to compare social and economic revolutions with political revolutions. In looking at the Industrial Revolution, students
should be provided with the opportunity to investigate this phenomenon
in at least two nations.

- To what extent is the Industrial Revolution still occurring in the
non-Western world?

  1. What is meant by postindustrial economy?


TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that Marx and Engels proposed
an economic system that would replace capitalism.

Suggested Documents: Resource maps, Sadler Commission, Report on Child Labor; Friedrich Engels, The Conditions of the Working Class in England; Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto; Thomas Malthus, Essay on the Principles of Population; Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations; Charles Dickens, Hard Times and Oliver Twist; Emile Zola, Germinal.

TEACHER’S NOTE: A response by individuals to industrialization was the mass
migration of Europeans to other parts of the world. Look at other examples of

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students may want to look at industrialization in other

TEACHER’S NOTE: Using primary and secondary sources, students should be
able to analyze and evaluate conflicting viewpoints regarding imperialism.

- To what extent is there a relationship between industrialization and

- Why did Japan turn to imperialism and militarism in the late-19th and early-
20th centuries? Here again, students should have a clear appreciation of the
world in spatial terms.

- What was the relationship between nationalism, industrialization, and
Suggested Documents: Maps of migration, charts, graphs, rural and urban demographics, maps of colonial possessions, journals, writings of people and groups showing contending perspectives on imperialism, Sun Yixian, History of the Chinese Revolution; Rudyard Kipling’s,“The White Man’s Burden”.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should analyze the Meiji Restoration in terms of
the political, economic, and social changes that were introduced. Students should be able to compare and contrast English and Japanese industrialization. Have students compare industrialization and westernization in Japan and the Ottoman Empire and other non-Western nations and Europe.

- Why did the Industrial Revolution occur in Japan before other Asian and African nations?

- What caused the conflicts between China, Russia, and Japan?

- What impact did the Russo-Japanese War have on the relative power of Russia? Japan?

- Why did Japan annex Korea? What policies did Japan follow in Korea (1910-1945)?

- How does Japanese imperialism of the past influence Japan’s relations with her
Asian neighbors today?

Suggested Documents: Political maps of Japan and East Asia; Millard Fillmore, Letter to the Emperor of Japan; Ito Hirobumi, Reminiscence on Drafting of the New Constitution; 19th-century Japanese prints showing contact with the West

Students analyze documents and artifacts related to the study of World War I. They should be asked to consider which events of the first half of the 20th century were turning points.

- What role did nationalism and imperialism play in World War I?

- What role did technology play?

- To what extent were the issues that caused World War I resolved?

- In what ways did World War I raise fundamental questions regarding justice and human rights?

- To what extent were World War I and the Russian Revolution turning points?

- What role did women play in the war?

- To what extent was the collapse of the Ottoman Empire like the fall of the Han
and Roman empires and the collapse of the Soviet Union?

Why might the Germans, French, and British view the causes of World War I

Suggested Documents: Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front;
Mustafa Kemal, Proclamation of the Young Turks; videotapes.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that Lenin and Stalin used the work of Marx to create a command economy.

- What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?

- Why did a communist revolution occur in Russia rather than a more industrialized nation?

- What steps did the Communists take to industrialize the Soviet Union?

- To what extent were the human rights of Russians and other ethnic and national groups respected by the Stalinist regime?

- How did various groups view the Russian Revolution?

- How does Russian industrialization compare with that of Western Europe?

Suggested Documents: Communist political  posters and art; V.I. Lenin, The Call to Power; Joseph Stalin, The Hard Line; Nikita S. Khrushchev, Address to the Twentieth Party Congress; for the Abdication of Nikolai II see http://www.dur.ac.uk/~dml0www/abdicatn.html.

- To what extent did communism and fascism challenge liberal democratic traditions?

- What impact did Japanese occupation have on China?

Suggested Documents: Political maps of the Post World War I time period; Woodrow Wilson’s speeches; Mao Zedong, Strategic Problems of China’s Revolutionary War; Mohandas Gandhi, Indian Opinion and The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology; Arthur James Balfour, The Balfour Declaration.

- What roles did Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin, Hitler, and Mussolini play in the
outcome of World War II?

- As nations moved toward war, what roles did individual citizens play in the Third
Reich and in Western democracies?

- To what extent did science and technology redefine the latter half of the 20th century?

- How did geography affect the conduct of World War II?

- In what ways did the Germans, Soviets, British, French, and Americans view the
causes of World War II differently?

Suggested Documents: Maps, World War II photographs, Teaching About the Holocaust and Genocide : The Human Rights Series Volumes I-III (New York State Education Department); Benito Mussolini, Facist Doctrines; Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf,
Thomas Mann, An Appeal to Reason, Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz; Elie
Wiesel, Reflections of a Survivor; Winston Churchill, “Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat”
speech; John Hersey, Hiroshima.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that the defeat of Germany and Japan in World War II had fundamental impacts on the future political development of both these powers. Germany’s and Japan’s new constitutions reflect these wartime and post-wartime experiences.

- What impact did the failure of democracy in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s play in post-World War II Germany?

- What did Germany learn from its Holocaust experience?

- What reasons can you pose for Germany’s adoption of one of Europe’s
most liberal asylum laws?

- What is the nature of Germany’s diplomatic relations with Israel?

  1. How was Japan’s new constitution developed?


TEACHER’S NOTE: Choose examples that best fit your local curriculum and the needs of your students. Students should investigate superpower rivalries in at least two different settings.

- What impact did the conflict between the superpowers have on the rest of the world?

- What was the global impact of the Cold War?

- Why did nations like Greece and Turkey become important in this struggle?

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should examine the Cold War from the perspectives of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet Union, the satellite nations of Eastern Europe, and the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Suggested Documents: Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech, memoirs; newspapers; books of the leading figures of the Cold War era; geopolitical maps; videotapes.

- What role did the United Nations play in Korea?

- How did Korean expectations of what would happen to their country after the war differ from that of the Super Powers?

- What possibility is there for the reunification of Korea?

- What threat does North Korea pose today? The United Nations was created to prevent war and to fight against hunger, disease, and ignorance.

- How successful has the United Nations been in achieving its goals?

Suggested Documents: The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights; for
Cold War documents see http://metalab.unc.edu/expo/soviet.exhibit/coldwar.html.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that the Cold War was more than a military rivalry; it was a struggle for survival and supremacy by two basically different ideologies and economic systems.

TEACHER’S NOTE: You might wish to have students compare and contrast industrialization in Europe and Japan with that in Egypt, India, or Korea.

- What role did science and technology play in this conflict?

- Why did the United States play such a vital role in the economic recovery of Europe and Japan?

Suggested Documents: Resource maps, graphs, charts, cartograms, GDP maps, World Bank Allocations.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should be given the opportunity to hypothesize about why democratic reforms failed in China and why Marxism was adopted. Like Russia, China was not an industrialized nation.

- How did China alter Marxist theory?

- To what extent are the stages of the Communist Revolution in China similar to those of other revolutions?

- What roles did such individuals as Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) and Mao Zedong play in the Communist Revolution in China?

- How successful was Mao in meeting the needs of the Chinese?

- What were the successes of the Chinese Revolution under Mao?

- How might a Chinese perspective of “liberation” differ from that of a Westerner?

- Why were the Communists under Deng Xiaoping willing to adopt elements of
the West’s market economies but not their concept of human rights?

- What role does the citizen play in the Chinese communist system?

- What hope does democracy have in a post-Deng China?

- What role will cities such as Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Guangzhou play
in the 21st-century global economy?

- How did the role of women change?

- What has happened to such practices as foot binding?

Suggested Documents: Maps showing expansion of communism (1936-1940); writings, speeches, memoirs of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and others Imperialism had played a major role in the global history of the 19th and 20th centuries.

- Why did the colonial empires collapse after World War II?

-What role does the caste system play in India today?

Suggested Documents: Maps, memoirs, speeches of Gandhi, Nehru, and others; videotapes.

- What forces brought about the collapse of European imperialism in the post-World War II world?

- What role did non-Western nationalism play in the collapse?

- To what extent have all ties between imperialistic nations and former colonies been completely broken?

Suggested Documents: Nelson Mandela, The Rivonia Trial Speech to the Court; Kwame Nkrumah, I Speak of Freedom: A Statement of African Ideology.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should have the opportunity to examine the multiple perspectives at play in Southeast Asia.

- To what extent can the war in Vietnam be seen as an anti-imperialist revolt?

Suggested Documents: Maps, speeches, and memoirs of Ho Chi Minh, Pol Pot,
Aung San Suu Kyi, and others.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should examine Islamic fundamentalism from
multiple perspectives in at least two nations. Students should also study fundamentalist groups in other religions and regions.

- To what extent has the migration of Jews to Israel been similar to earlier
migrations? similar to other migrations going on today?

- Why has it proven so difficult to resolve conflict in the Middle East?

- Why is this region so important to the world’s global economy?

- What role have the United States,United Nations, and Egypt played in trying to resolve Arab-Israeli conflicts?

Suggested Documents: Maps, speeches, cartoons, treaties, eyewitness accounts,
and videotapes.

- What role does Islamic fundamentalism play in modern Turkey?

- To what extent was the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union a major turning point in global history?

- In what ways can it be compared to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han

- What caused the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union?

- What was the impact of the collapse on the West? on Cuba?

- What role did nationalism play in the collapse of communism and the
breakup of the Soviet Union?

- What historic ties did Eastern Europe have with Western Europe?

- Why did communism as an economic system collapse in the Soviet Union?

- What problems does Russia face as it moves toward capitalism?

Suggested Documents: Writings and speeches of Vaclav Havel, Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin, and Lech Walesa

- What is the future of a post-Cold War Cuba?

Suggested Documents: Political and economic maps of Latin America, speeches and memoirs of Fidel Castro, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Jose Napoleon Duarta, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro; Camilo Torres, Communism and Revolution in Latin America.

Students should be able to investigate the characteristics, distributions, and migrations of human populations on the Earth’s surface.

- What patterns of migration are emerging in the late-20th/early-21st century?

- To what extent are these patterns global?

- What is the relationship between the migration of people and ethnic tensions?

- What is the relationship between ethnic tensions and nationalism?

- What opposition has arisen to migration? Why?

- To what extent are current migrations similar to early migrations? How are they different?

TEACHER’S NOTE: In most societies there is a tension between tradition and modernization. Traditional societies that are modernizing frequently develop conflicts regarding the secularization of the political system and the assumption of nontraditional roles by men and women. Non-Western nations often look to technology to resolve their social, political, and economic problems and at the same time they want to maintain their traditional culture and values. You may want to examine industrialization in one or two developing nations in depth.

- What impact did the scientific and technological advances of the period have on life expectancy, war, and peace?

- What would Thomas Malthus have said about these changes?

- To what extent is the process of industrialism similar from one nation to the next?

- What role does democracy play in Latin America?

- What problems are posed by increased modernization and urbanization in developing nations?

TEACHER’S NOTE: Urbanization and population pressures are issues facing all nations. Students need to understand how nations use and distribute scarce resources. Urbanization, modernization, and industrialization are powerful agents of social change in developing nations.

- What factors determine whether or not a nation is overpopulated?

- What strategies are nations taking to overcome the adverse aspects of urbanization
and overpopulation?

- To what extent has the status of women advanced throughout the 20th century?

Suggested Documents: Official United Nations documents from the Beijing Conference on Women (1995); Amnesty International, Political Murder; Paul Kennedy, Demographic Explosion.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Students should understand that as global economic systems become more interdependent, economic decisions made in one nation or region have implications for all regions.

Economic development for all nations depends upon a wise use of globally scarce resources.

- What is meant by the term “postcolonialism”?

- What is the relationship between formercolonies and the nations that once
controlled them?

-How has the global economy changed since 1945?

- What weaknesses do many developing economies face?

- What made Korea’s economic miracle possible?

-To what extent is Latin America moving from a cash crop economy to a diversified industrial economy?

- On what basis are economic decisions being made in developing nations? in industrialized nations? (Compare /contrast.)

- How has economic decision making become more global as the world
economy becomes increasingly interdependent?

- To what extent have economic disparities between developed and developing nations persisted or increased?

View the NYS Global History Standards, units 5 - 8.